Facilitated variation and Intelligent Design
The monkey parable by Kirschner and Gerhart illustrates the major criticism of neo-Darwinism, randomness cannot generate novelty.
Suppose that you give a monkey a pen and paper, and let it randomly scribble, how long will it take until it writes “Monkey”? Next let the monkey hit typewriter keys, its chances to type “Monkey” will obviously improve. Finally if you let the monkey type on a computer keyboard with a spell checker that eliminates non English words, it may succeed.
According to the theory of intelligent design, in order
to create novelty the monkey needs assistance by a super-being. On the
other hand, Kirschner and Gerhart’s theory, called “facilitated variation’
is more convincing. Structure is never inherited as such only genes (blueprint)
are inherited, and structure constraints genetic expression. Phenotypic
variation cannot be random. It is biased and creates novelty.
There is more to structure than just its appearance. Biological structure has a wisdom (WOB) which constraints gene expression. WOB is optimal and will facilitate only genes which improve optimality.